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Featuring Demian Dressler, DVM and Sue Ettinger, DVM, Dip. ACVIM (Oncology), authors of The Dog Cancer Survival Guide

Metronomic Chemotherapy for Dogs with Cancer

Updated: October 11th, 2018

metronomic-chemotherapy-dogWhat is Metronomic Chemotherapy?

Metronomic chemotherapy is a relatively new type of chemotherapy that uses low doses of oral (pulse) chemotherapy given on a continuous treatment schedule. Since it is given daily or every other day, the chemotherapy is given at lower doses then typical chemotherapy, often with a reduced toxicity profile. That reduction in toxicity usually results in fewer side effects.

How Is Metronomic Chemotherapy Different than Traditional Chemotherapy?

Conventional chemo is given at high dosages, known as maximum tolerated dose, or MTD. The goal of conventional chemotherapy is to kill rapidly dividing cancer cells. But there are normal cells that also replicate quickly, so it can also temporarily damage them, too. Most commonly, it is the GI tract cells and the white blood cells that are temporarily damaged. To allow these cell populations to recover, we put a break period into the chemotherapy schedule, usually a full week. The typical schedule for MTD is weekly, although some treatment schedules give breaks of up to three weeks.

In contrast, the goal of metronomic chemotherapy is NOT to kill the cancer cells directly. Instead, metronomic chemotherapy targets and inhibits tumor blood vessels growth. Why the blood vessels, instead of the tumors themselves? Because tumor blood vessel cells are more active than normal blood vessel cells, and they bring nutrition to the tumor.  Blood vessel growth is technically called angiogenesis, so you will hear metronomic chemotherapy called “anti-angiogenic.”

There is also evidence that some low-dose chemo drugs, like cyclophosphamide, have an effect on tumor immunology: they alter a subset of immune system cells in the T-lymphocyte family (regulatory T-Cells).

When is metronomic chemotherapy used?

We are truly still at an early stage in understanding the mechanisms and the efficacy of this approach. I use this approach for some patients with metastatic disease — such as spread of the tumor to the lungs — in an attempt to slow progression of the metastatic disease.  (Traditional chemo does not work well for dogs with metastasis.)

Another use is for dogs that have failed standard of care – meaning their cancer came came back or progressed on the recommended drugs – or if there is no standard of care for an uncommon cancer.

Metronomic chemotherapy has also been used recently for splenic hemangiosarcoma and incompletely removed soft tissue sarcomas.

Although the idea of metronomic chemotherapy is relatively new, there are cancers for which we have used a low-dose oral approach for years. Examples include low grade/small cell lymphomas (especially in cats) with Leukeran and multiple myeloma is dogs with melphalan.


Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is the drug most commonly used in metronomic protocols in people and pets. CYC can be combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as piroxicam, for its potential ant-cancer effect on certain cancers. Remember, even though NSAIDS are not chemo, they can also cause side effects (GI, liver, kidney), so discuss with your oncologist or vet if it is appropriate to use them in your dog.

Another chemo drug that can be given continuously at low doses is chlorambucil (Leukeran), and more recently Lomustine.

CYC can also be combined with some of the new targeted chemo drugs, such as the receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In fact my preferred metronomic approach combines Palladia with low dose CYC.


Palladia a relatively new oral mast cell tumor (MCT) drug with anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative effects for other tumors as well. The most common are GI side effects, and most are mild to moderate in intensity. In my opinion, most Palladia side effects are manageable with early recognition, and early recognition is critical. That means I adjust or temporarily stop the Palladia if needed. Side effects include diarrhea, vomiting, lethargy, GI ulcers, and weight loss.  That’s why I monitor my patients carefully with physical examinations, monitoring weight closely,  and blood work.

How frequent are visits?

Personally, when I start these protocols I re-check every two weeks for four to six weeks. After that, I start re-checking every four to six weeks, depending on the case. At these visits, I am doing my exam, comparing weight, running some basic blood work,  and periodically checking tumor response (which often requires chest X-rays or ultrasound, depending, again on the case). If we are having side effects, I may adjust the dose adjustments and/or take a treatment break.

How quickly can I expect to see results? How long will my pet be on a metronomic protocol?

Since we are targeting the tumor blood vessels, responses can take weeks. I recommend at least six to eight weeks to see an effect. Remember in a tumor that failed other therapies, stabilizing the disease (meaning it doesn’t progress) can still be considered a success.

I typically recommend metronomic chemo be given for at least six months, if effective.

What are the side effects?

In general metronomic protocols are well-tolerated, and most side effects are mild (mild decreased appetite, vomiting, diarrhea).

Although uncommon, CYC can cause an inflammation to the bladder, called sterile hemorrhaging cystitis. The symptoms are similar to a UTI (urinary tract infection) – increased straining, peeing small amounts more frequently, sometimes bloody. In these cases, CYC should be discontinued.

If any of the side effects are severe, I tell my clients to stop the chemo, give prescribed nausea/vomiting and/or diarrhea medications, and contact my nurses.

Live Well,

Dr. Sue

Leave a Comment

  1. ann on April 10, 2019 at 4:19 pm

    what is the protocol on palladia and cyc

    • Molly Jacobson on April 11, 2019 at 5:53 am

      Hi Ann, thanks for your question. Doses will vary depending bon the dog and the specifics of their case, so the best person to ask this is your vet. They will be able to determine where to start, and then monitor your dog’s progress and adjust the dose as necessary.

  2. Sue Morgan on September 13, 2018 at 4:51 am

    I am devastated to lose my dog Max after vet stopped Masivet for his mast cell tumour instead of reducing it after low white blood cell cound; the tumour grew massive within days

    • Dog Cancer Vet Team on September 13, 2018 at 6:25 am

      Hello Sue,

      Thanks for writing, and we are so sorry for your loss.

  3. Misty Sue | Feral Cat Tails on August 31, 2017 at 4:33 am

    […] the time and in very good health.  We elected to do 19 rounds of radiation and then 1 year of oral metronomic chemotherapy.  She was such the trooper and sailed through all of the treatments.  She went into remission in […]

  4. Susan Kazara Harper on December 7, 2014 at 10:06 am

    Pam, I apologize for the delay. We’ve been trying to keep up. What is the latest news?

  5. Terri on November 18, 2014 at 12:07 am

    Tillie has Lymphoma,she was having Vincristine and Cyclophosamide. Which took the glands down after 3 months of treatment the glands swelled again so the Vet Gave a massive dose of Chemo.0.75mg Vincristine and 6 cyclophosamide pills in one day also 6 pred . After 6 days she became very poorly and it continued for a week so we made the decision to change to Metronomic. She has 30kg Metacam and a quarter Cyclophosamide she is 34kg weight she started yesterday and today she is peeing blood.I phoned the Vet who said wait 48hrs to see if it settles and if it didnt he didnt know what to give her.But i have read you can use other drugs in Metronomic anyone know about this please i am at my wits end

  6. Spayer59 on June 1, 2014 at 5:28 pm

    Just looking for different opinions. Actually my daughter in law is my vet. There are so many different ideas about pred. Like I said just looking for different opinions.

    • Susan Kazara Harper on June 2, 2014 at 1:03 am

      That makes sense. We just wouldn’t do something like that online, I know you understand. Even if an offered opinion would help you, someone else may take it onboard for their own dog. You are lucky to have a vet in the family, and at the same time follow your gut if you feel you want to get a specialist in on the consultation. It can only help. Good luck!!!!!

  7. Susan Kazara Harper on June 1, 2014 at 1:33 pm

    Hello, This is the type of information you really need to get from your vet. You don’t want to guess, and we would not make any recommendations, it wouldn’t help you or your dog. If you have the Dog Cancer Survival Guide there is a lot of information about different chemo protocols, and different cancers, which may help you better understand the procedures and options. But for specifics about your dog, please make a list of questions that you need answers for from your vet, and schedule an appointment to do just that. No one answer applies to every dog and every situation. Good luck with the chemo. Please make sure your dog’s nutrition is a much real, quality food as possible to help support him or her, giving extra tools to help that immune system stay strong. All the best,

  8. Spayer59 on June 1, 2014 at 4:22 am

    My golden just started chemo. How long and what dosage of pred is ok before starting chemo?

  9. Helen on February 27, 2014 at 3:57 pm

    Dr. Ettinger, I recently purchased the Dog Cancer Book. My 14 year old Cairn Terrier was diagnosed with Hemanigosarcoma. Her spleen was removed and she is currently on cyclophosphamide and doing pretty well. I read the chapter regarding safe handling of the drug and although I am careful and not concerned about myself, I do worry about exposure to my very young granddaughter and especially her pregnant mother being around our dog. When they visit is it necessary to keep our dog away from them? The handling of waste products is not a problem, but what about her saliva? Is general contact completely safe for them? Thanks for any additional information you can give me.

  10. Jackie on January 21, 2014 at 8:22 am

    Dr. Ettinger,
    Have there been any studies done about metronomic chemo for nasal sarcomas specifically? My dog was diagnosed with stage 3 nasal chondrosarcoma (low grade/low mitotic index) in May and got palliative radiation in June and is still doing well. I guess the low grade probably means there aren’t many tumor blood vessels?
    We tried Piroxicam but it caused chronic diarrhea and it was only studied in nasal carcinomas anyway (not sarcomas). They really need to do some clinical trials on nasal sarcomas!

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