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Featuring Demian Dressler, DVM and Susan Ettinger, DVM, Dip. ACVIM (Oncology), authors of The Dog Cancer Survival Guide

Dog Cancer Supplements Dr. Dressler Excludes from Full Spectrum Cancer Care…and Why

Many Supplements Recommended Online for Dog Cancer Are Either NOT Going to Be Helpful, Are Too Costly, or Are Just Not Safe

by Dr. Demian Dressler, DVM 

Excerpted from Appendix B: Excluded Supplements, which can be found starting on page 415 of The Dog Cancer Survival Guideby Dr. Demian Dressler, DVM with Dr. Susan Ettinger, DVM, Dip. ACVIM (Oncology)

Many dog lovers are willing to try just about anything when their dogs have cancer, and there are many supplements purported to be good for cancer that I have assessed but decided I could not recommend in general, and certainly not in my book.

One of my major concerns is over-dosing dogs. While supplements are generally not as powerful as pharmaceuticals, you have to keep in mind that they can have effects. (Or why would we even bother using them?)

Using too many at once, especially ones that cancel each other out is usually a bad idea. Think about it: would you trust a doctor who told you that you needed fifteen different prescriptions? Especially if several of them offered opposite benefits? If you are giving your dog more than a handful of carefully chosen supplements that have been shown to be safe and helpful, think twice.

Another cause for concern is duplicating ingredients -- giving more than one supplement that contains the same ingredients. This can lead to you over-dosing your dog, because, just like with pharmaceuticals, you can do "too much of a good thing."

Most of us are not pharmacologists -- not even doctors or veterinarians (although we do get some pharmacology training in medical school). Pharmacologists need four years of preparatory coursework BEFORE they go through four years of pharmacy training. That's eight years of study to become a pharmacist! For reference, medical school is three years, and most veterinary programs are two years.

No wonder those of you trying to learn overnight how all those drugs and supplements and vitamins interact to help (or harm) your dog get frustrated. You can't expect yourself to be able to master all the ins and outs of supplements and drugs overnight, in your kitchen.

That's why it's wise to only add things to your dog's strategy under your veterinarian's supervision (because they have some training in this stuff), and to only add things that have been shown to be both safe and have benefit.

To make the Full Spectrum recommendations I make in The Dog Cancer Survival Guide, I’ve studied, a lot. I've spent a lot of time getting past the hype, the marketing, and the often-passionate online discussions. 

I only recommend things that are generally safe and benefit most dogs, so that you don't waste time or money on supplements that have no value. I also want to recommend things that have a "lot of leverage" and can be used safely with conventional treatments, because I want you to be safe.

After all, your dog is already sick with cancer. The last thing you want to do is give him or her something you think is good that ends up being less than safe. And of course, I want you to check everything out with your own veterinarian because every cancer case is different for every dog.

The recommendations I make in my book are for foods and supplements you can manage at home, which have the biggest impact on dogs with cancer, and which are helpful for most dogs and most dog cancers.

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Even so, I know you may have heard about supplements that aren’t included in my recommendations.

To keep you informed and let you know more about the way I think, below is a list of some of the major supplements I rejected for inclusion, and a summary of my opinion about why they are simply not as important as other supplements (or are dangerous, in some cases). 

The reasons for rejection vary, and may include one or more of the following:

  1. Some were rejected because they might interfere with more important therapies. As I stated in the sidebar on page 249, the first priority in Full Spectrum care is targeting cancer cells, followed by boosting the immune system. If the immune system could take care of the cancer by itself, it would have when it was strong and healthy -- at this point, we need to FIRST target cancer cells, and SECOND boost the immune system. For example, supplements with strong antioxidant properties may interfere with important pro-oxidant therapies (such as chemotherapy, radiation, Apocaps CX and other apoptogens). That's why, if a supplement with antioxidant benefits does not have an anti-cancer effect, or if it has evidence for interfering with primary therapies that have known benefits, I rejected it.
  2. Some were rejected because there is unconvincing evidence. The supplement needs more than anecdotal evidence that it helps cancer. If it has only anecdotal evidence, it must have many reported successes. If not, the supplement was rejected.
  3. Some were rejected because they are not effective when given by mouth. Some supplements are effective when given by injection, but not by mouth. If the supplement cannot be given by mouth and be effective, it was rejected.
  4. Some were rejected because they aren't absorbed when taken by mouth: "bioavailability issues." If the supplement is not absorbed into the bloodstream, or if the intestines and/or the liver break down the active ingredient before it gets into the bloodstream, the supplement was rejected.
  5. Some were rejected because they have questionable safety (or are unsafe) in dogs. I will not recommend a supplement unless my extensive research has demonstrated its safety. If a supplement did not have a healthy margin of safety based on known data, I rejected it.
  6. Some were rejected because of batch variability problems. The supplement must have a uniform amount of active ingredient in each batch. Some supplements are cut with fillers, or may not have uniform amounts of the active ingredient in each batch or pill due to seasonal or regional differences. Depending upon many factors, this variability could reduce efficacy or even create a danger to the dog. Such supplements were rejected.
  7. Some were rejected because they are really unsafe when used with commonplace treatments most dogs get. Some supplements can cause more serious problems when combined with other medications or treatments. These were excluded.
  8. Some were rejected because they have impractical dosing requirements. If a supplement requires a mega-dose to be effective, most guardians will not be able to get their dogs to take the required amount by mouth.These were excluded.
  9. Some were rejected because they are priced unreasonably high. Every supplement has a price tag, but some supplements are priced so unreasonably high that they were excluded.
  10. Some were rejected because I could not find research available in or translated to English. Many supplements from Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurvedic Medicine, and aboriginal medicine systems were excluded because original research and medical textbooks are written in languages I cannot read. Because I can’t accurately assess their evidence, I did not include them in Full Spectrum care. My hope is that with accelerating global communications I’ll learn more in the future. It's not that I don't think these treatments could help your dog -- it's just that I don't personally know enough to recommend them. If you are interested in using these medicines, I highly recommend consulting directly with practitioners from those systems so you can get their expert advice.

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The following list is not comprehensive; it contains the most popular supplements I rejected. As always, I reserve the right to change my mind and my recommendations as new data emerges.

For a detailed description of the nutraceuticals I would recommend instead, get the free chapter and appendix of my book here.

Acai (Euterpe oleracea) This trendy palm berry has some anti-inflammatory effects, due to the presence of anthocyanins. It also has antioxidant benefits, but those do not outweigh the possibility of interfering with the pro-oxidant supplement Apocaps CX and pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Because of this, and because its safety in dogs is not yet known, I do not recommend it.

VERDICT on Acai:

Not recommended; may not be safe for dogs.

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Algae Supplements (various, including Spirulina) Blue-green algae has some evidence for use in detoxifying carcinogens, but not a huge amount. It is also high in omega-3 fatty acids, but not nearly as high as krill oil and high-quality fish oils, which makes the dosing requirements impractical for use in dogs. If your dog does not tolerate fish or krill oil, you might consider using blue-green algae, but otherwise, this is a low-priority supplement.

VERDICT on  Algae Supplements:

Low priority supplement; impractical doses.

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Aloe Vera There is some evidence that aloe vera stimulates the immune system, and it also has some antioxidant effects. There is some evidence for anti-cancer effects, but not enough to convince me to recommend it for that purpose. There is also a bioavailability issue with one of the most promising active ingredients, acemannan, which is difficult to absorb when taken by mouth. Aloe’s antioxidant benefits do not outweigh its interfering effects with Apocaps CX and the pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation treatments.

VERDICT on Aloe Vera:

Low priority supplement; antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics; bioavailability issues.

Antioxidants (Potent Commercial formulations such as MaxGL, Poly MVA) We’ve discussed the complicated role pro-oxidants and antioxidants play in cancer throughout this book. To restate, Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy drugs, and radiation therapy may have lower success rates if strong antioxidants are used. For this reason, I do not recommend potent commercial antioxidants that deliver mega-doses. Instead, I recommend offering food rich in naturally occurring antioxidants, and supplemental dietary levels of antioxidants. At these levels, antioxidants have been shown to benefit life quality and increase success. Poly MVA is also very expensive, which is a secondary reason for my excluding it from Full Spectrum cancer care.

VERDICT on Potent Antioxidants:

Antioxidants may interfere with more important therapeutics; cost-prohibitive.

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Artichoke Extracts (Cynara cardunculus) While components in artichoke extract have demonstrated anti-cancer effects, the number of pills needed is an impractical dose for dogs. Artichoke’s active ingredients are included in Apocaps CX, making a separate supplement redundant.

VERDICT on Artichoke Extracts:

Impractical doses; also redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX.

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Astralagus (Astralagus membranaceous) The herb astralagus stimulates the immune system and has an antioxidant effect in the body (so it could interfere with pro-oxidant supplements like Apocaps CX, chemotherapy and radiation treatments). While there is some evidence that it has direct anti- cancer effects, it is not strong. For these reasons, I consider it a low-priority supplement. The exception would be if your dog does not tolerate medicinal mushrooms, and is not on Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy drugs, or radiation therapy.

VERDICT on Astralagus:

Low-priority supplement.

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Baical Skullcap (Scuttelaria baicalensis) This herb has a long historical record of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Its anti-cancer effects are promising and currently being substantiated in Western medicine. I am excited about the possibilities, but there is not enough data yet to start recommending it across the board.

VERDICT on Baical Skullcap:

May recommend in the future.

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Beres Drops Beres Drops were created as an immune booster, but their efficacy was diminished when the product was reformulated without zinc. Zinc is included in Apocaps CX, which makes the Beres Drops a low priority.

VERDICT on Beres Drops:

Efficacy issues as formulated; redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX.

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Black Tea Supplements

VERDICT on Black Tea Supplements:

Please see my comments about EGCG and green tea supplements.

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Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) Cat’s Claw is an herb with many reported uses, including as an anti-inflammatory; but the direct anti-cancer evidence is not strong. Because we don’t know much about Cat’s Claw, including what its active ingredients are, it is difficult to recommend a dosage.Also, published studies show the composition of its compounds can vary from batch to batch, because the plant grows in a variety of places at different times of year. It has antioxidant effects, but they do not outweigh its interfering effects on Apocaps CX and the pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation treatments.These reasons make it a low priority supplement.

VERDICT on Cat's Claw

Low priority supplement; batch variability; antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics.

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Chamomile (Marticaria) Components of chamomile have demonstrated anti-cancer effects, but the number of pills needed is impractical for dogs. Chamomile’s active ingredients are also included in Apocaps CX, making the separate supplement redundant.

VERDICT on Chamomile

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX; impractical doses on its own.

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Co Q-10 (Coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone) This powerful antioxidant, which is found mainly in meat, is recommended on page 149 for dogs with heart-related side effects. For any other case, its antioxidant effects can interfere with the effects of Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation treatments. It also has some bioavailability issues, so unless your dog is at risk for cardiac side effects, I do not recommend Co Q-10.

VERDICT on CO Q-10

Low priority supplement; antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics; bioavailability issues.

Cod Liver Oil As I noted in the omega-3 discussion on page 204, cod liver oil has known toxicity issues in large doses. The dose required to offer meaningful support to dogs with cancer is very high. Using it could overdose dogs with fat-soluble vitamins, leading to toxicity.

VERDICT on Cod Liver Oil

Not safe.

Colloidal Silver Colloidal silver has antimicrobial effects and may be safe when used in small amounts, but there is little evidence of direct anticancer effects. Large amounts of this product are toxic to several body systems.

VERDICT on Colloidal Silver

Not recommended; not safe.

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Curcumin (Curcuma longa) I used to recommend the spice curcumin as a separate supplement because of its strong anti- cancer effects. Unfortunately, guardians had to jump through a lot of (rather messy) hoops in their kitchen to overcome bioavailability problems so the cur- cuminoids, the active ingredients in the spice, could be absorbed into the bloodstream. This difficulty in administration was one of the main reasons I created Apocaps CX. Curcumin is a primary ingredient in Apocaps CX, and absorption issues have been resolved. Giving curcumin separately is redundant and difficult.

VERDICT on Curcumin

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX; bioavailability issues.

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Echinacea This popular herb stimulates natural killer cells in lab animals, but the evidence for direct benefit in actual cancer patients is flimsy. In fact, the real-life evidence of actual immune efficacy when used for infection is also flimsy. Mushroom-derived polysaccharides, or medicinal mushrooms, are a much better choice. If your dog does not tolerate medicinal mushrooms, consider echinacea’s use, but keep in mind that it is an antioxidant and may interfere with Apocaps CX, chemotherapy and radiation treatments.

VERDICT on Echinacea

Low priority supplement.

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EGCG and Green Tea Supplements I used to recommend EGCG, the active ingredient in green tea, because of its cancer-fighting properties. However, I have since seen what I believe was EGCG interacting with other supplements in toxic ways, which leads me to make it a lower- priority supplement, which in some cases should be avoided altogether. I am cautious about taking EGCG with quercetin (page 422), for example, because clinically my experience is that this combination may have caused anemia in dogs. I do not have any studies to refute or support my experience, but it’s a red flag for me. Quercetin is included in Apocaps CX, so if you are using them, I would avoid EGCG. I also do not recommend unrefined green tea extracts at all, because the stimulants in green tea may be unsafe for some dogs.

VERDICT on EGCG

Low priority supplement; may not be safe in all dogs.

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Eleuthero (Siberian Ginseng, Eluetherococcus senticosus) Eleuthero was named Siberian ginseng and has similar effects to ginseng, but it is not actually part of the ginseng family. This herb has a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine for its anti- inflammatory and antioxidant effects; it also helps the body resist stress. While these effects may be helpful for your dog, evidence for direct anti-cancer effects is not as strong as in other supplements I recommend. Because of this, and because of its potential for interfering with pro-oxidant therapies, I give eleuthero a lower priority than other supplements.

VERDICT on Eleuthero

Low priority supplement.

Essiac Essiac, or Essiac tea, is an herbal blend purported to cure cancer. After in-depth review by several authorities, it does not appear to have any beneficial effects on cancer. In fact, a form of Essiac was found to stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro. I do not recommend Essiac in any form.

VERDICT on Essiac

Not recommended; may not be safe.

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Flax Seed (Linum usitatissimum) There are published studies demonstrating the anti-cancer effects of flax seeds, but the doses dogs need are huge. This makes it impractical to use for cancer treatments. Omega-3 fatty acids from krill and fish oil are a better choice.

VERDICT on Flax Seed

Low priority supplement; impractical doses.

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Garlic (Allium sativim) capsules Constituents in garlic have demonstrated anti-cancer benefits, which is why it is recommended for use in your dog’s diet (see Chapter 14). However, garlic capsules may not be as useful as the actual food, because the active organosulfur compounds can become unstable when processed into a supplement. For this reason, I recommend using garlic in its natural state only, not in capsule form.

VERDICT on Garlic Capsules

May be ineffective in capsule form; instead use natural food as outlined in Dog Cancer Diet. (Note: Although it does have antioxidant effects, its anti-cancer effects are more important. I recommend using garlic even if you are also using Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy, or radiation treatments, under veterinary supervision.)

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Ginger supplements (Zingiber of- ficinale) Constituents in ginger have demonstrated anti-cancer benefits, and ginger is also helpful in managing nausea. For these reasons, I recommend using ginger as an anti-nausea treatment, in your dog’s diet, and I have also added gingerols, the active ingredients, to Apocaps CX. Using pill forms of ginger in addition would be redundant.

VERDICT on Ginger Supplements

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX; use natural food as outlined in Dog Cancer Diet. (Note: Although it does have antioxidant effects, ginger’s anti-cancer and anti-nausea effects are more important. I recommend using ginger even if you are also using Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy, or radiation treatments.)

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Gingko (Gingko biloba) There is some evidence that gingko biloba may help some oral tumors, but the overall evidence for direct anti-cancer activity is flimsy. I consider this a very low-priority supplement for most dogs with cancer.

VERDICT on Gingko

Very low priority supplement.

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Ginseng (Panax ginseng, Panax) Ginseng is an herb that has a wide variety of uses in Traditional Chinese medicine. It has some direct anti-cancer effects, but the evidence is not as strong as for other supplements I recommend. It also has an antioxidant effect in the body, which makes it a lower-priority supplement due to its interference with pro-oxidant chemotherapy, radiation, and Apocaps CX.

VERDICT on Ginseng

Low priority supplement.

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Grape Seed Extract (Vitis) Grape seed extract is sometimes recommended as a cancer supplement, but the data for actual anti- cancer benefits are very limited when compared to other supplements I recommend. Grapes are toxic for dogs, sometimes fatally so, and we do not yet know which specific compound causes that toxicity. For this reason, I recommend avoiding all products containing or extracted from grapes. Grape seed extract also has an antioxidant effect, which makes it less helpful for dogs on pro-oxidant chemotherapy, radiation, or Apocaps CX.

VERDICT on Grape Seed Extract

Low priority supplement; may not be safe for dogs.

Grapefruit Seed Extracts There is evidence for grapefruit seed extract being an antimicrobial agent, but naringin and related compounds can affect the metabolism of some pharmaceuticals, including some chemotherapy drugs. There is little evidence for anti-cancer benefits. In addition, the antioxidant benefits do not outweigh its interfering effects on Apocaps CX and the pro-oxidant therapies, chemotherapy and radiation. For these reasons, I do not recommend grapefruit seed extracts.

VERDICT on Grapefruit Seed

Not recommended; unsafe interactions are possible.

Hoxsey Hoxsey is a mixture of herbs created by an insurance salesman in the 1920’s and promoted as a cure for cancer. It has been found ineffective by several reviewing authorities, including the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Cancer Institute.The FDA banned its sale in the United States in 1960, but it is still talked about in online forums. Even Hoxsey didn’t believe in the Hoxsey Treatment or Hoxsey Method – he treated his own prostate cancer with conventional medicine. I do not recommend this treatment at all.

VERDICT on Hoxsey

Not recommended.

Indole-3-Carbinol (I3C) Indole-3-carbinol is a naturally occurring compound found in many vegetables, but especially cruciferous vegetables like brussels sprouts, cabbage and broccoli. Studies have shown it has both anti- carcinogenic and antioxidant effects. However, there is also some evidence that taking indole-3-carbinol as an oral supplement is toxic for dogs. It is for these safety concerns that I have excluded it, as well as the possibility that its antioxidant properties could interfere with important supplements like Apocaps CX, pro- oxidant chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Instead of using oral supplement forms, I recommend adding cruciferous vegetables to your dog’s diet as outlined in Chapter 14.

VERDICT on Indole-3-Carbinol

May not be safe; use natural food sources as outlined in dog cancer diet.

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IP-3 and IP-6 (inositol hexaphosphate) These antioxidants may have some benefits for cancer patients, but they don’t outweigh the interfering effects with Apocaps CX, and the pro-oxidant therapies chemotherapy and radiation.

VERDICT on IP-3 and IP-6

Antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics.

 Vitamin B 17, amygdalin Amygdalin is usually made from apricot seeds or similar seeds, and has a complicated history of use and regulation. The evidence foramygdalin’s actual effect on cancer is controversial, and there is some concern that hydrogen cyanide is released when it is metabolized. This concern is validated by literature reporting serious cyanide poisoning in children after ingesting apricot pits.  Amygdalin's safety has never been assessed in dogs, and I do not recommend its use.

VERDICT on Amygdalin

Not recommended; safety issues.

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Lutimax I used to recommend Lutimax because it is one of the only supplements featuring luteolin, which has strong anti-cancer effects in the body (discussed in Chapter 12). Unfortunately, it also contains xylitol, which has been shown to cause liver injury and hypoglycemia in dogs when given in large amounts. I used to recommend Lutimax because of its main ingredient, but the possible xylitol issue remained. Given the large number of guardians using Lutimax according to the Full Spectrum plan, I was concerned that a dog with low-dose xylitol sensitivity might show up. Safety is critical, so I included luteolin as a main ingredient in Apocaps CX.Taking Lutimax at the same time as Apocaps CX is redundant.

VERDICT on Lutimax

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX; safety issues in large amounts.

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Maritime Pine Bark Supplements The anti-inflammatory effects of Maritime Pine Bark are well documented, but evidence for its direct anti-cancer effects is flimsy when compared to other supplements I recommend. Its antioxidant benefits do not outweigh its interfering effects on Apocaps CX and the pro-oxidant therapies chemotherapy and radiation.

VERDICT on Maritime Pine Bark

Low priority supplement; antioxidant which may interfere with more important therapeutics.

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Milk Thistle (Silybum marinarum) In addition to other beneficial effects, constituents in milk thistle have demonstrated strong anti-cancer effects. However, the active compounds with anti-cancer properties (silymarin A and B and silybinin), are not easily absorbed by the body. To address this for dogs, I included silymarin and silybinin in Apocaps CX, and addressed the bioavailability issues with these ingredients. Using a separate milk thistle supplement would be redundant and much less effective due to the bioavailability problems when taken by mouth.

VERDICT on Milk Thistle

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX; bioavailability issues.

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Mistletoe (Viscum album) Mistletoe may increase the life quality of cancer patients, but evidence for its direct anti-cancer benefits is flimsy. Its antioxidant benefits do not outweigh its interfering effects on Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation.

VERDICT on Mistletoe

Low priority supplement; antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics.

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MMS (methyl methanesulfonate) I am definitely interested in this relatively new substance, which clearly has a biologically active effect. However, systematic safety studies are lacking, and there is some evidence that it may be carcinogenic. I’m not comfortable recommending MMS at this time, but I may recommend it in the future if its safety is established.

VERDICT on MMS

May recommend in the future; safety not established.

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Onco Support The antioxidant effects of Onco Support don’t outweigh its interfering effects with Apocaps CX, prooxidant chemotherapy, and radiation.

VERDICT on Onco Support

Antioxidant that may interfere with more important therapeutics.

Pau d’arco (Tabebuia avellanedae) Pau d’arco is a South American tree reputed to be helpful for a variety of conditions. However, the tree itself is becoming scarcer every year, and imitation products are starting to hit the market. Pau d’arco contains hydroxyquinone, a known carcinogen, and, like Cat’s Claw, there is no standardization of the supplement. The batch variability and possibility of unsafe or synthetic ingredients makes me uncomfortable with recommending this supplement.

VERDICT on Pau D'Arco

Not recommended; batch variability; may not be safe.

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Prebiotics Prebiotics stimulate the growth and activity of the healthy bacteria in the digestive system. While I recommend them in general, because they can be useful for digestive upset and general health, they do not have direct anti-cancer benefits, so I consider them a low-priority supplement. Please see the probiotics discussion for more information.

VERDICT on Prebiotics

Low priority supplement.

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Probiotics Probiotics are live bacteria taken by mouth to promote a healthy digestive system. In general, I recommend using probiotics because they can be useful in managing diarrhea and in some cases involving allergies or inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. They also have some nutritional benefit. However, probiotics lack specific anti-cancer actions in the body. Their lack of critical support for dogs with cancer makes them a low-priority supplement.

VERDICT on Probiotics

Low priority supplement.

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Quercetin Quercetin has good evidence for anti-cancer effects, but when taken by mouth has low absorption in the body. I like quercetin enough to include it in Apocaps CX, where its bioavailability issues are addressed. For this reason, taking a separate supplement is redundant.

VERDICT on Quercetin

Redundant as a supplement if taking Apocaps CX.

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Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L.) Red clover may have some use in bone tumor cases, because it may help with maintaining the bone’s integrity. Otherwise, its overall anti-cancer evidence is very flimsy. It has antioxidant effects, but they do not outweigh its interfering effects on Apocaps CX and the pro-oxidant therapies chemotherapy and radiation.

VERDICT on Red Clover

Very low priority supplement.

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Resveratrol Resveratrol has good anti-cancer effects in vitro, but the bioavailability of the anti-cancer compounds in vivo is low. It has some application for cancers in the lining of the digestive tract, (where the substance can contact tumors directly), but otherwise I do not recommend it because its antioxidant effects in even low doses may interfere with treatments like Apocaps CX, pro-oxidant chemotherapy and radiation.

VERDICT on Resveratrol

Low priority supplement, bioavailability issues.

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Shark Cartilage Shark cartilage has some isolated evidence for preventing angiogenesis, but the data is not strong. In addition to this, I am personally concerned because the harvesting of shark cartilage is a brutal process and may be threatening shark populations. For all of these reasons, I do not recommend shark cartilage.

VERDICT on Shark Cartilage

Not recommended.

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*All products featured were chosen at random and comments are not meant to be a direct comment on the products featured specifically but as a visual sample of the overall category.*