There were many studies, articles and books Dr. Dressler and Dr. Ettinger used when writing The Dog Cancer Survival Guide. Here is a list of the most important references about the use of silymarin/silybinin.
Please note that in vivo and clinical use citations were included whenever possible. We have also include links to the papers, where available. Most of the papers are found on the National Institute of Health’s online library, PubMed.
Effects of the flavonoids biochanin A, morin, phloretin, and silymarin on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. Zhang S and Morris ME. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Mar;304(3):1258-67.
Antiproliferative effect of silybin on gynaecological malignancies: synergism with cisplatin and doxorubicin. Scambia G, et al. Eur J Cancer. 1996 May;32A(5):877-82.
Silibinin synergizes with mitoxantrone to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Flaig TW, et al. Int J Cancer. 2007 May 1;120(9):2028-33.
The emerging pharmacotherapeutic significance of the breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) Hardwick LJA,Velamakanni S, van Veen HW, Br J Pharmacol. 2007 May; 151(2): 163–174.
Dietary feeding of silibinin inhibits prostate tumor growth and progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. Raina K, et al. Cancer Res. 2007 Nov 15;67(22):11083-91.
Oral silibinin inhibits in vivo human bladder tumor xenograft growth involving down-regulation of survivin. Singh RP, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Jan 1;14(1):300-8.
Stage-specific inhibitory effects and associated mechanisms of silibinin on tumor progression and metastasis in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model. Raina K, et al. Cancer Res. 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6822-30.
Silibinin inhibits constitutive and TNFalpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB and sensitizes human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Dhanalakshmi S, et al. Oncogene. 2002 Mar 7;21(11):1759-67.
Silymarin induces apoptosis primarily through a p53-dependent pathway involving Bcl-2/Bax, cytochrome c release, and caspase activation. Katiyar SK, Roy AM, Baliga MS. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005 Feb;4(2):207-16.
Multitargeted therapy of cancer by silymarin. Ramasamy K and Agarwal R. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):352-62. Epub 2008 May 9.
Comparative bioavailability of silibinin in healthy male volunteers. Kim YC, et al. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Dec;41(12):593-6.
Silibinin activates p53-caspase 2 pathway and causes caspase-mediated cleavage of Cip1/p21 in apoptosis induction in bladder transitional-cell papilloma RT4 cells: evidence for a regulatory loop between p53 and caspase 2. Tyagi A, et al. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Nov;27(11):2269-80.
Silymarin causes caspases activation and apoptosis in K562 leukemia cells through inactivation of Akt pathway. Zhong X, et al. Toxicology. 2006 Oct 29;227(3):211-6.
Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by natural products in human breast cancer cells. Chung SY, et al. Arch Pharm Res. 2005 Jul;28(7):823-8.
Influence of silymarin and its flavonolignans on doxorubicin-iron induced lipid peroxidation in rat heart microsomes and mitochondria in comparison with quercetin. Psotová J, et al. Phytother Res. 2002 Mar;16 Suppl 1:S63-7.
Toward the definition of the mechanism of action of silymarin: activities related to cellular protection from toxic damage induced by chemotherapy. Comelli MC, et al. Integr Cancer Ther. 2007 Jun;6(2):120-9.
Effect of silibinin on the growth and progression of primary lung tumors in mice. Singh RP, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 Jun 21;98(12):846-55.
Silibinin inhibits established prostate tumor growth, progression, invasion, and metastasis and suppresses tumor angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate model mice. Singh RP, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7773-80.